Policy Manual (v2.1 - 25/03/2014)

9. Global Policies


9.1. Policy for the Allocation of IPv4 Address Space from IANA to RIRs

This chapter describes the policies governing the allocation of IPv4 address space from the IANA to the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). This chapter does not stipulate performance requirements in the provision of services by IANA to an RIR in accordance with these policies. Such requirements should be specified by appropriate agreements among the RIRs and ICANN.

9.1.1. Allocation Principles

  • The IANA will allocate IPv4 address space to the RIRs in /8 units.
  • The IANA will allocate sufficient IPv4 address space to the RIRs to support their registration needs for at least an 18-month period.
  • The IANA will allow for the RIRs to apply their own respective chosen allocation and reservation strategies in order to ensure the efficiency and efficacy of their work.

9.1.2. Initial Allocations

Each new RIR shall, at the moment of recognition, be allocated a new /8 block by the IANA. This allocation will be made regardless of the newly formed RIR's projected utilization figures and shall be independent of the IPv4 address space that may have been transferred to the new RIR by the already existing RIRs as part of the formal transition process.

9.1.3. Additional Allocations

An RIR is eligible to receive additional IPv4 address space from the IANA when either of the following conditions are met:

  • The RIR's AVAILABLE SPACE of IPv4 addresses is less than 50% of a /8 block.
  • The RIR's AVAILABLE SPACE of IPv4 addresses is less than its established NECESSARY SPACE for the following 9 months.

In either case, IANA shall make a single allocation of a whole number of /8 blocks, sufficient to satisfy the established NECESSARY SPACE of the RIR for an 18-month period.

9.1.3.1. Calculation of AVAILABLE SPACE

The AVAILABLE SPACE of IPv4 addresses of an RIR shall be determined as follows:

  • AVAILABLE SPACE = CURRENTLY FREE ADDRESSES + RESERVATIONS EXPIRING DURING THE FOLLOWING 3 MONTHS - FRAGMENTED SPACE.
  • FRAGMENTED SPACE is determined as the total amount of available blocks smaller than the RIR's minimum allocation size within the RIR's currently available stock.

9.1.3.2. Calculation of NECESSARY SPACE

If the applying Regional Internet Registry does not establish any special needs for the period concerned, NECESSARY SPACE shall be determined as follows:
 

  • NECESSARY SPACE = AVERAGE NUMBER OF ADDRESSES ALLOCATED MONTHLY DURING THE PAST 6 MONTHS * LENGTH OF PERIOD IN MONTHS


If the applying RIR anticipates that due to certain special needs the rate of allocation for the period concerned will be different from the previous 6 months, it may determine its NECESSARY SPACE as follows:

  • Calculate NECESSARY SPACE as its total needs for that period according to its projection and based on the special facts that justify these needs.
  • Submit a clear and detailed justification of the above mentioned projection (Item A).

If the justification is based on the allocation tendency prepared by the Regional Internet Registry, data explaining said tendency must be enclosed.
If the justification is based on the application of one or more of the Regional Internet Registrys new allocation policies, an impact analysis of the new policy/policies must be enclosed.

If the justification is based on external factors such as new infrastructure, new services within the region, technological advances or legal issues, the corresponding analysis must be enclosed together with references to information sources that will allow verification of the data.

If IANA does not have elements that clearly question the Regional Internet Registrys projection, the special needs projected for the following 18 months, indicated in Item A above, shall be considered valid.


9.1.4. Announcement of IANA Allocations

When address space is allocated to an RIR, the IANA will send a detailed announcement to the receiving RIR. The IANA will also make announcements to all other RIRs, informing them of the recent allocation. The RIRs will coordinate announcements to their respective membership lists and any other lists they deem necessary.

The IANA will make appropriate modifications to the "IPv4 Address Space" page of the IANA website and may make announcements to its own appropriate announcement lists. The IANA announcements will be limited to informing which address ranges, the time of allocation and to which Registry they have been allocated.


9.2. Global policy for the allocation of the remaining IPv4 address space

This policy describes the process for the allocation of the remaining IPv4 space from IANA to the RIRs. When a minimum amount of available space is reached, one /8 will be allocated from IANA to each RIR, replacing the current IPv4 allocation policy.

In order to fulfill the requirements of this policy, at the time it is adopted, one /8 will be reserved by IANA for each RIR. The reserved allocation units will no longer be part of the available space at the IANA pool. IANA will also reserve one /8 to any new RIR at the time it is recognized.

The process for the allocation of the remaining IPv4 space is divided in two consecutive phases:


9.2.1. Existing Policy Phase

During this phase IANA will continue allocating IPv4 addresses to he RIRs using the existing allocation policy. This phase will continue until a request for IPv4 address space from any RIR to IANA either cannot be fulfilled with the remaining IPv4 space available at the IANA pool or can be fulfilled but leaving the IANA remaining IPv4 pool empty.

This will be the last IPv4 address space request that IANA will accept from any RIR. At this point the next phase of the process will be initiated.


9.2.2. Exhaustion Phase

IANA will automatically allocate the reserved IPv4 allocation units to each RIR (one /8 to each one) and respond to the last request with the remaining available allocation units at the IANA pool (M units).

9.2.3. Size of the final IPv4 allocations

During this phase IANA will automatically allocate one /8 to each RIR from the reserved space defined in this policy. IANA will also allocate M allocation units to the RIR that submitted the last request for IPv4 addresses.

9.2.4. Allocation of the remaining IPv4 Address space

  • After the completion of the evaluation of the final request for IPv4 addresses, IANA MUST:
  • Immediately notify the NRO about the activation of the second phase of this policy.
  • Proceed to allocate M allocation units to the RIR that submitted the last request for IPv4 address space.
  • Proceed to allocate one /8 to each RIR from the reserved space.


9.3. Policy for the Allocation of IPv6 Address Space from IANA to Regional Internet Registries (RIRs)

This chapter describes the policy governing the allocation of IPv6 address space from the IANA to the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). This document does not stipulate performance requirements in the provision of services by IANA to an RIR in accordance with this policy. Such requirements will be specified by appropriate agreements between ICANN and the NRO.


9.3.1. Allocation Principles

  • The unit of IPv6 allocation (and therefore the minimum IPv6 allocation) from IANA to an RIR is a /12.
  • The IANA will allocate sufficient IPv6 address space to the RIRs to support their registration needs for at least an 18-month period.
  • The IANA will allow for the RIRs to apply their own respective chosen allocation and reservation strategies in order to ensure the efficiency and efficacy of their work.

9.3.2. Initial Allocations

On inception of this policy, each current RIR with less than a /12 unallocated address space shall receive an IPv6 allocation from IANA.

Any new RIR shall, on recognition by ICANN, receive an IPv6 allocation from the IANA.


9.3.3. Additional Allocations

An RIR is eligible to receive additional IPv6 address space from the IANA when either of the following conditions are met:

  • The RIRs AVAILABLE SPACE of IPv6 addresses is less than 50% of a /12.
  • The RIRs AVAILABLE SPACE of IPv6 addresses is less than its established NECESSARY SPACE for the following 9 months.

In either case, IANA shall make a single IPv6 allocation, sufficient to satisfy the established NECESSARY SPACE of the RIR for an 18-month period.


9.3.3.1. Calculation of AVAILABLE SPACE

The AVAILABLE SPACE of IPv6 addresses of an RIR shall be determined as follows:
 

  • AVAILABLE SPACE = CURRENTLY FREE ADDRESSES + RESERVATIONS EXPIRING DURING THE FOLLOWING 3 MONTHS - FRAGMENTED SPACE


FRAGMENTED SPACE is determined as the total amount of available blocks smaller than the RIRs minimum allocation size within the RIRs currently available stock.


9.3.3.2. Calculation of NECESSARY SPACE

If the applying Regional Internet Registry does not establish any special needs for the period concerned, NECESSARY SPACE shall be determined as follows:
 

  • NECESSARY SPACE = AVERAGE NUMBER OF ADDRESSES ALLOCATED MONTHLY DURING THE PAST 6 MONTHS * LENGTH OF PERIOD IN MONTHS


If the applying RIR anticipates that due to certain special needs the rate of allocation for the period concerned will be different from the previous 6 months, it may determine its NECESSARY SPACE as follows:

Calculate NECESSARY SPACE as its total needs for that period according to its projection and based on the special facts that justify these needs.

Submit a clear and detailed justification of the above mentioned projection.

If the justification is based on the allocation tendency prepared by the RIR, data explaining said tendency must be enclosed.

If the justification is based on the application of one or more of the RIRs new allocation policies, an impact analysis of the new policy/policies must be enclosed.

If the justification is based on external factors such as new infrastructure, new services within the region, technological advances or legal issues, the corresponding analysis must be enclosed together with references to information sources that will allow verification of the data.


9.3.4. Announcement of IANA Allocations

The IANA, the NRO, and the RIRs will make announcements and update their respective websites regarding an allocation made by the IANA to an RIR. ICANN and the NRO will establish administrative procedures to manage this process.


9.4. Global Policy for Allocation of ASN Blocks to Regional Internet Registries

This document describes the policy governing the allocation of Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs) from the IANA to the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs).

This policy document does not stipulate performance requirements in the provision of services by the IANA to an RIR. Such requirements will be specified by appropriate agreements between ICANN and the Number Resource Organization (NRO).

9.4.1. Allocation Principles

IANA allocates ASNs to RIRs in blocks of 1024 ASNs. In this document the term "ASN block" refers to a set of 1024 ASNs. Until 31 December 2009, allocations of 2-byte only and 4-byte only ASN blocks will be made separately and independent of each other(1). This means until 31 December 2009, RIRs can receive two separate ASN blocks, one for 2- byte only ASNs and one for 4-byte only ASNs from the IANA under this policy. After this date, IANA and the RIRs will cease to make any distinction between 2-byte only and 4-byte only ASNs, and will operate ASN allocations from an undifferentiated 4-byte ASN allocation pool.

9.4.2. Initial Allocations

Each new RIR will be allocated a new ASN block.

9.4.3. Additional Allocations

An RIR is eligible to receive (an) additional ASN block(s) from the IANA if one of the following conditions is met:

  • The RIR has assigned or allocated 80% of the previously received ASN block
  • The number of free ASNs currently held by the RIR is less than its two month need. This projection is based on the monthly average number of ASNs assigned or allocated by the RIR over the previous six months.

An RIR will be allocated as many ASN blocks as are needed to support their registration needs for the next 12 months, based on their average rate of assignment or allocation over the previous six months, unless the RIR specifically requests fewer blocks than those for which it qualifies.

9.4.4. Announcement of IANA Allocations

The IANA, the NRO and the RIRs will make announcements and update their respective websites/databases when an allocation is made by the IANA to an RIR. ICANN and the NRO will establish administrative procedures to manage this process.


9.5.    GLOBAL POLICY FOR POST EXHAUSTION IPV4 ALLOCATION MECHANISMS BY THE IANA

Upon adoption of this IPv4 address policy by the ICANN Board of Directors, the IANA shall establish a Recovered IPv4 Pool to be utilized post RIR IPv4 exhaustion as defined in Section 1. The Recovered IPv4 Pool will initially contain any fragments that may be left over in the IANA. It will also hold any space returned to the IANA by any other means.

9.5.1-    Recovered IPv4 Pool

The Recovered IPv4 Pool will be administered by the IANA. It will contain:

  • a. Any fragments left over in the IANA inventory after the last /8s of IPv4 space are delegated to the RIRs

The IANA inventory excludes "Special use IPv4 addresses" as defined in BCP 153 and any addresses allocated by the IANA for experimental use.

  • b. Any IPv4 space returned to the IANA by any means.

The Recovered IPv4 Pool will stay inactive until the first RIR has less than a total of a /9 in its inventory of IPv4 address space.

When one of the RIRs declares it has less than a total of a /9 in its inventory, the Recovered IPv4 pool will be declared active, and IP addresses from the Recovered IPv4 Pool will be allocated as stated in Section 9.5.2 below.

9.5.2-    Allocation of returned IPv4 address space by the IANA
 

  • Allocations from the IANA may begin once the pool is declared active.
  • In each "IPv4 allocation period", each RIR will receive a single "IPv4 allocation unit" from the IANA.
  • An "IPv4 allocation period" is defined as a 6-month period following 1 March or 1 September in each year.
  • The IANA will calculate the size of the "IPv4 allocation unit" at the following times:
    • When the Recovered IPv4 Pool is first activated
    • At the beginning of each IPv4 allocation period to calculate the "IPv4 allocation unit"

At these times, the IANA will use the following formula:

 

  • IPv4 allocation unit = 1/5 of Recovered IPv4 pool, rounded down to the next CIDR (power-of-2) boundary.


No RIR may get more than this calculation used to determine the IPv4 allocation unit even when they can justify a need for it.

The minimum "IPv4 allocation unit" size will be a /24. If the calculation used to determine the IPv4 allocation unit results in a block smaller than a /24, the IANA will not distribute any addresses in that IPv4 allocation period.

9.5.3-    Reporting

The IANA may make public announcements of IPv4 address transactions that occur under this policy. The IANA will make appropriate modifications to the "Internet Protocol V4 Address Space" page of the IANA website (2) and may make announcements to its own appropriate announcement lists. The IANA announcements will be limited to which address ranges, the time of allocation, and to which Registry they have been allocated.