FAQ

DNSSEC FAQ

What is DNSSEC?

DNSSEC (DNS Security Extensions) is a set of extensions to the DNS protocol that allow cryptographically validating DNS server responses.

This means that when we receive a response to a DNS query it may include additional information that allows us to verify its validity,

In turn, this allows us to have additional safeguards against man-in-the-middle attacks or cache poisoning.

To create these safeguards DNS server administrators must sign their zones. Together with the usual records, the signing process inserts additional information in the zones that allow clients (i.e., those querying the DNS) to verify those signatures.

This process is similar to other digital signature procedures in which signature verification involves following a signature chain to a root or trust anchor.

The DNSSEC trust anchor is provided by the signed root zone. The DNS root zone was signed in June 2010.

DNSSEC does not define a new protocol, but instead creates new records and new flags within the framework of existing DNS messages.

Why is deploying DNSSEC important?

The DNS protocol is a critical piece in the operation of the Internet. In fact, it's difficult to imagine the Internet on its current scale without an efficient and scalable name resolution mechanism.

The DNS protocol was originally defined in 1983 (RFCs 882 and 883) and has not undergone significant changes since then. New functionalities have been associated with extensions and new types of records.

Because it was designed when the Internet was still largely limited to the academic environment, the DNS protocol suffers from a few structural weaknesses that make it vulnerable to certain types of attacks.

These attacks include what is known as "The Kaminsky Bug" that made headlines in 2008 and required urgent software updates on all DNS servers.

Replacing all Internet DNS servers is unthinkable, but thanks to the DNS protocol's extensibility it was possible to define extensions that enable DNSSEC to reduce these weaknesses without forcing the immediate replacement of all servers.

DNSSEC is being deployed gradually as different operators are signing zones.

I don't know anything about DNSSEC. Where can I begin?

There is a lot of freely available information on DNSSEC in terms of documentation and tutorials.

By way of example, we can mention the following:

What do I need to sign my zones?

Work must be carried out on two levels: on one hand, software that supports zone signing must be installed and operated; on the other, key and signature handling and management policies and procedures must be defined.

In terms of software, the following products can be mentioned:

  • BIND 9.7 / 9.8
  • OpenDNSSEC
  • Others

What do I need to validate DNS responses?

You can begin validating DNS responses today in your recursive DNS servers. To do this, you must follow the steps specified by the software manufacturer.

For example:

BIND 9.7 and higher versions:

What is LACNIC's role in DNSSEC?

As the regional Internet address registry, LACNIC also operates reverse DNS resolution for IPv4 and IPv6 addresses in the region.

This is, for example, among others, the case of 179.in-addr.arpa or 200.in-addr.arpa. In these zones LACNIC members install delegation records (NS records) that allow 'linking' the root of the reverse DNS tree to its lower branches

In the case of DNSSEC, LACNIC's DNS servers must also contain another type of records (DS records) that allow creating the chain of trust mentioned above.

What DNSSEC functionalities does LACNIC's registry system provide?

LACNIC members wishing to sign their reverse zones may use LACNIC's registry system to configure the DS records for their DNSSEC keys.

Is the use of DNSSEC mandatory?

No. Using DNSSEC is up to each operator. However, we believe that it is important to work on deploying this technology.

 

FAQ Billing / Invoices

What methods can I use to pay my membership fees?

You can choose any of the following payment methods:

Online payment: You can pay online with your Mastercard at the following link: https://pagos.lacnic.net

Bank transfer: The information you need to transfer your payment is available at the end of your invoice.

Credit card: LACNIC accepts credit card payments made by Visa and MasterCard. The corresponding credit card payment form is included at the end of your invoice. Please complete the form, scan the document and email it to facturacion@lacnic.net or fax it to +598 2604 2222 Ext. 4112.

On the Automatic Debit form, what is CBC?

CBC refers to the last three numbers that appear on the back of your credit card.

How much does the assignment of an additional IP address block cost?

In the case of ISPs, additional blocks only generate an additional cost if the assignment results in a change of category. In that case, the difference between the old category and the new category will be prorated according to the number of months remaining until the following renewal date.

End Users must pay the assignment fee according to the size of the requested block.

View Price List

How can I check my membership renewal date?

Your membership renewal date is the date on which you were assigned your first resource. In other words, if you received your first block in May 2011, your renewal date is May 2012. Please consider that the invoice will be issued two months prior to its due date. If you have any question or doubt regarding your renewal date, please contact the Customer Service Department at facturacion@lacnic.net.

Where can I get the invoice for my renewal fee?

Your invoice will be sent to the email address of the person designated as the billing contact two months before its due date. If you have not received your invoice, please check your spam folder or contact our Customer Service Department at facturacion@lacnic.net.

 

RPKI FAQ

Where I can find software to validate RPKI repositories?

There are currently three validation software implementations: RIPE NCC, rcynic and RPSTIR by BBN. They can be downloaded at the following links:

Which routers support RPKI origin validation?

Cisco Systems and Juniper Networks have routers capable of using RPKI information for route origin validation. The NIST implementation for Quagga can also be used.

BGP Secure Routing Extension (BGP-SRx) – RPKI for Quagga
http://www-x.antd.nist.gov/bgpsrx/

How I can check if my routes are signed correctly?

To verify that your prefixes have been properly signed and that there are no errors due to invalid routes, you can visit LACNIC's origin validation tool:

RPKI Origin Validation Looking Glass
http://www.labs.lacnic.net/rpkitools/looking_glass/

 

FAQ Projects

 

1- What projects is LACNIC currently working on?

LACNIC is currently working on the following projects in Latin America and the Caribbean:

  • FRIDA

programafrida.net

frida@lacnic.net

A program aimed at contributing to the development of the Information Society by funding research projects selected through public calls for proposals and rewarding successful initiatives deployed within the region.

  • AYITIC

ayitic.net 

info@ayitic.net

A capacity building project especially designed for Haiti and its specific needs: expanding network knowledge and creation, strengthening spaces for policy makers, especially in the fields of IP telephony, networks, security, and other technology and development issues.

  • AMPARO

proyectoamparo.net

contactoamparo@lacnic.net

A program that seeks to increase computer security incident response capabilities through applied research initiatives, promoting CSIRT creation, providing training at regional level, and generating collaboration opportunities, among other activities.

  • +RAICES

+RAICES

proyectos@lacnic.net

The goal of the +Raíces project is the installation of anycast copies of the F and L root servers in the LACNIC service region.

  • SUPPORTING EXTERNAL INITIATIVES

Supporting External Initiatives

proyectos@lacnic.net

Supporting regional organizations so that they can hold events (seminars, workshops, conferences, etc.) and produce widely distributed printed materials.

2 - How can I participate in these projects?

Participation in each of these projects varies, so we recommend regularly checking for calls for proposals/candidates and following the projects on social media: @programafrida, @amparo_lacnic, or their Facebook pages.

3 - Are there specific periods for submitting proposals?

In the case of FRIDA, calls for proposals are issued and notified through the project's mailing list. You can subscribe to infofrida through our programafrida.net website.

4 - I have an idea... What can I do?

If you have a project or idea you believe is related to what we do, please contact us at: proyectos@lacnic.net.

5 - Can I link to the LACNIC project websites?

Yes. Of course! The aim of LACNIC and its projects is to contribute and strengthen ties within the community. We particularly recommend the following websites:

http://programafrida.net/

http://www.proyectoamparo.net

Still looking for the answer to your question?

Contact us at proyectos@lacnic.net

 

FAQ Membership

What does membership include?

  • The use and administration of IPv4 and IPv6 resources - Registration Services.
  • The right to vote at the General Member Assembly, according to each member's category and number of assigned votes
  • To be nominated to a position on the Board of Directors
  • Resource Certification - RPKI
  • Revwerse Resolution - DNS
  • Support Service
  • Automated Resource Administration System - SARA


What responsibilities does the Membership Contact have?

The Membership Contact is the person responsible for exercising the membership rights of each organization.

She or he has the right to self-nominate or nominate candidates for a position on the board of LACNIC, the Electoral and Fiscal Comission. It is also the entitled person to cast votes on behalf of the organization it represents.

She or he has the right to nominate candidates for the positions of Chair of the Public Forum.

Each organization has three points of contact, the Administrative Contact, the Billing Contact and Membership Contact. These contacts are the key persons within the organization who are responsible for maintaining updated information of the Member and exercise the corresponding membership rights.


What responsibilities does the Administrative Contact have?

The Administrative Contact, is the Technical Contact of the organization and is responsible for the administration of the allocated resources by LACNIC (IPv4, IPv6 and ASN).

Each organization has three points of contact, the Administrative Contact, the Billing Contact and Membership Contact. These contacts are the key persons within the organization who are responsible for maintaining updated information of the Member and exercise the corresponding membership rights.


What responsibilities does the Billing Contact have?

The Billing Contact is responsible for the management and timely payment of the cost of membership.

Each organization has three points of contact, the Administrative Contact, the Billing Contact and Membership Contact. These contacts are the key persons within the organization who are responsible for maintaining updated information of the Member and exercise the corresponding membership rights.

 

How can I participate in the election?

Detailed information regarding each election will be emailed to each organization's membership contact.

+Info

How can I stand as a candidate for a position on the Board of Directors?

Detailed information regarding the election will be emailed to each organization's membership contact.

Candidates to the Board of Directors must be nominated by a member organization through its membership contact, i.e., the person appointed by the orgnization to exercise membership rights.

The organization must be current on its obligations; the nominated candidate may or may not be part of the organization. Candidates may be nominated by members with the right to vote. According to LACNIC's bylaws, these include Active A Members, Active B Members, and Active Founding Members.

Restrictions that apply to candidate nomination and election

According to article 20 of LACNIC's bylaws, members of the Board of Directors are subject to the following incompatibilities:

  • Not more than two Directors may be domiciled in the same country;
  • Not more than one Director may be an employee, consultant or advisor of the same Company or Organization and/or of one of its Related Companies, whether established in the same country or not.

The Electoral Commission shall adopt the criteria necessary to enforce the restrictions set forth in the bylaws.

Candidate nominations must be emailed to nominaciones@lacnic.net with the subject "Candidate Nomination to LACNIC's Board of Directors" and the following information in the body of the message:

  • Candidate's name:
  • Candidate's e-mail address:
  • Name of the person nominating the candidate:
  • Organization of the person nominating the candidate:
  • Reason for the nomination:

The actual voting will take place online on LACNIC´s website.

Members have the right to present one candidate for each seat to be filled.

Each member has a designated representative, the membership contact, who has the right to vote on behalf of the organization he/she represents.

How can I stand as a candidate for a position on the Electoral Commission?

Detailed information regarding the election will be emailed to each organization's membership contact.

According to LACNIC's bylaws, members of the Electoral Commission each serve a three-year term and are annually renewed on a rotating basis.

Nominations must be submitted by the person authorized to exercise their organization's membership rights, which is the person registered on LACNIC's database as its membership contact.

Requirements for running in the election:

  • Being nominated by a LACNIC member (self-nominations are allowed)
  • Being endoresed by two (2) LACNIC members
  • LACNIC employees may not be nominated or nominate any candidates.

+info

To nominate a candidate:

Send an email with the following information to eleccion_comisiones@lacnic.net:

  • Position for which the candidate is being nominated:
  • Candidate's name:
  • Candidate's email address:
  • Brief candidate biography:
  • Name of the person nominating the candidate:
  • Organization:
  • Reason for the nomination:

To endorse a candidate:

Send an email with the following information to eleccion_comisiones@lacnic.net:

  • Name of the candidate that is being endoresed:
  • Name of the person making the endorsement:
  • Organization to which the person presenting the endorsement belongs:
  • Reason for the endorsement:

Election

The election will be held during the Ordinary General Member Assembly, voting by show of hands. Winning candidates will occupy the positions filled by current members for a period of three years as of the moment of the election. In case of a vacancy by resignation, the term that will be covered is one year as from the date of the election.

How can I stand as a candidate for a position on the Fiscal Commission?

Detailed information regarding the election will be emailed to each organization's membership contact.

According to LACNIC's bylaws, members of the Fiscal Commission each serve a three-year term each and are annually renewed on a rotating basis.

Nominations must be submitted by the person authorized to exercise their organization's membership rights, which is the person registered on LACNIC's database as its membership contact.

Requirements for running in the election:

  • Being nominated by a LACNIC member (self-nominations are allowed)
  • Being endoresed by two (2) LACNIC members
  • LACNIC employees may not be nominated or nominate any candidates

+info

To nominate a candidate:

Send an email with the following information to eleccion_comisiones@lacnic.net:

  • Position for which the candidate is being nominated:
  • Candidate's name:
  • Candidate's email address:
  • Brief candidate biography:
  • Name of the person nominating the candidate:
  • Organization:
  • Reason for the nomination:

To endorse a candidate:

Send an email with the following information to eleccion_comisiones@lacnic.net:

  • Name of the candidate that is being endoresed:
  • Name of the person making the endorsement:
  • Organization to which the person presenting the endorsement belongs:
  • Reason for the endorsement:

Election

The election will be held during the Ordinary General Member Assembly, voting by show of hands. Winning candidates will occupy the positions filled by current members for a period of three years as of the moment of the election. In case of a vacancy by resignation, the term that will be covered is one year as from the date of the election.

How can I be nominated to become Public Forum Chair? What is the election process?

Calls for nominations are published on LACNIC's website and emailed to both anuncios@lacnic.net and politicas@lacnic.net.

A vacancy is generated upon completion of a current chair's term of service.

First, a period for candidate nominations and endorsements is defined.

Candidates must comply with one of the following requirements:

  • Be a member of LACNIC.
  • Be nominated by a member of LACNIC.* *Nominations must be submitted by the person designated by an organization as its membership contact.
  • LACNIC employees may not be nominated or nominate any candidates.
  • Self-nominations are allowed.
  • Terms are established for candidate nominations and their corresponding acknowledgment.
  • As applications are received, candidates' names and bios as well as any expressions of support received before the closing date for receipt of nominations will be published on LACNIC's website

Candidates who will be running in the election will be announced on a date after the closing of nominations.

Nominating a candidate

To nominate a candidate, please send an email to eleccion_mfp@lacnic.net with the subject "Public Forum Chair" and include the following information:

Candidate:

  • Candidate's name:
  • Country of residence:
  • Name of the Organization:
  • Email address:
  • Postal address:
  • Telephone number:
  • Biography:

Person Nominating the Candidate:

  • Reasons for the nomination:
  • Name of the person nominating the candidate:
  • Organization:
  • Email address:

All confirmed candidates will be published on LACNIC's website along with their corresponding biographies.

Sending expressions of support for the candidates

To send expressions of support for the candidates, please email apoyo_mfp@lacnic.net and include the following information:

  • Name of the candidate that is being endorsed:
  • Name of the person making the endorsement:
  • Organization:
  • Email address:

The election will be decided by electronic ballot in accordance with the duly established deadlines.

How can I be nominated to become LACNIC's Representative to the NRO Number Council/ASO Address Council? What is the election process?

Calls for nominations are published on LACNIC's website and emailed to both anuncios@lacnic.net and politicas@lacnic.net.

  • A call for candidates is launched. All candidates must be from the LACNIC region. Terms are established for candidate nominations, their corresponding acknowledgment, and compliance with the other requirements specified below.
  • As applications are received, candidates' names are published on LACNIC's website. During this period, expressions of support for the candidates are accepted. Only candidates who receive at least 5 endorsements are allowed to run in the election.
  • Candidate information (acknowledgement of nominations, expressions of support, candidate bios) will be published on LACNIC's website.
  • The election of LACNIC's Representative to the NRO Number Council will take place at LACNIC's Public Policy Forum.
  • Votes will be cast using paper ballots containing a list of the candidates' names.
  • Anyone present in the room at the time of the election will be allowed to vote, as long as they have registered for the Forum and are from a country within LACNIC's service area.
  • Voters may check one (1) candidate listed on the paper ballot. Each check mark will equal one vote.
  • Votes will be anonymous.
  • A committee of three people appointed by the Public Policy Forum will be in charge of counting the votes. Candidates are not allowed on this committee.
  • Once all votes are counted, the person who obtains the highest number of votes will be proclaimed the LACNIC region representative to the NC for a period of three years starting on January 1st of the following year
  • In the event of a tie, a new round of voting will take place in which only the candidates who are tied will participate.

To nominate a candidate you must send an email to nominaciones-ac@lacnic.net and include the following mandatory information:

  • Candidate's name:
  • Country of residence:
  • Name of the Organization:
  • Email address:
  • Postal address:
  • Telephone number:
  • Biography:
  • Reasons for the nomination:
  • Name of the person nominating the candidate:
  • Organization:
  • Email address:

All confirmed candidates will be published on LACNIC's website along with their corresponding biographies.

To endorse a candidate you must email apoyos-ac@lacnic.net and include the following information:

  • Name of the candidate that is being endorsed:
  • Name of the person making the endorsement:
  • Organization:
  • Email address:

What are the responsibilities of the members of the Electoral Commission?

The Electoral Commission is in charge of all maters relating to the elections, including contested candidates and restricting the vacancies at stake due to incompatibilities (having the authority to eliminate and/or restrict the candidacies of one or more contested candidates and/or candidates investigated at the Electoral Commission's own initiative), as well as counting the votes and determining the results and winning candidates. The Electoral Commission may act based on third-party accusations or on its own initiative, and has the authority to summon an Extraordinary Assembly in case of serious irregularities in the election. In case of a third-party accusation, the Electoral Commission shall also have the authority to investigate and decide on any alleged incompatibilities of the members of the Board of Directors and the Fiscal Commission.

+info.

What are the responsibilities of the members of the Fiscal Commission?

The Fiscal Commission oversees the operation of the institution and the Board of Directors, and has the following duties and attributions:

  • To control all accounting books and documentation that support bookkeeping entries, overseeing management, controlling the state of the cash flow and the existence of funds, bonds and stock, in accordance with the laws and bylaws in force;
  • To present suggestions to the Board of Directors, in relation to the responsibilities detailed in the item above;
  • To pass judgment on the Annual Report, Inventory, General Balance Sheet, and Expenses and Income Account submitted by the Board of Directors for the consideration of the Ordinary Assembly at the end of each fiscal year;
  • To summon an Ordinary Assembly should the Board of Directors fail to do so, having previously notified the Board of Directors 15 days in advance;
  • To request that an Extraordinary Assembly be summoned whenever it is deemed necessary, justifying the request before the "Dirección General de Registros, Asociaciones Civiles y Fundaciones" should the Board of Directors refuse to comply with the request;
  • To summon an Extraordinary Assembly, informing the Control Organ, should a members' request be presented unsuccessfully according to the provisions Article 14;
  • To oversee the operations for the liquidation of LACNIC. The Fiscal Commission shall fulfill its functions without interfering with the organization's normal operation;
  • In case of a third-party accusation, to investigate and decide on alleged incompatibilities of members of the Electoral Commission.

+info.

What are the responsibilities of the Public Policy Forum Chairs?

LACNIC's Public Policy Forum will have two chairs, both of which will have the same functions:

  • To lead and prepare Public Policy Forum discussions. Discussions will be conducted by one of the two chairs, who may alternate in this function during the course of the event.
  • To lead the Public Policy Mailing List and the Policy Development Process in general.
  • To evaluate and suggest minor changes to the texts proposed during the Public Policy Forum before the corresponding call for consensus.
  • To evaluate and suggest consensus in policy discussions.
  • To suggest the finalization of the discussions on a specific issue on the Public Policy Mailing List.
  • To decide to abandon a policy.
  • To summon the creation of Working Groups on the Public Policy Mailing List.
  • To receive comments from LACNIC's Staff in relation to different aspects of a policy proposal. These comments may include, among others, comments on the wording, cost of implementing a proposal, legal aspects, and the location of a proposal within LACNIC's policy document.

About the Public Policy Forum Chairs

  • Public Policy Forum Chairs cannot be members of LACNIC's staff.
  • These positions are honorary.
  • Call for nominations will be made through the Public Policy Mailing List.
  • All those subscribed to the Public Policy Mailing List will be able to participate.
  • The election will be conducted immediately before the Public Policy Forum.
  • Electronic mechanisms will be implemented so that each person subscribed to the list can cast only one vote.
  • The winning candidate of the electronic voting process must be ratified at the Public Policy Forum. The acting chairs will ask those in attendance whether they have any objections to the electronic voting process. If any objections are raised, the chairs will evaluate whether the objections are sufficiently significant. If no objections are raised, or if the chairs consider that the objections are not significant, they will proceed to ratify the winning candidate. Any chair who participated in the election as a candidate must abstain from participating as chair during the ratification process.
  • The elected chairs will start their term immediately after the closing of the Public Policy Forum during which they were ratified.
  • If there is no ratified winner, LACNIC's Board of Directors will appoint a chair to fill the vacant position until the following Public Policy Forum. The next time an election and ratification process can be conducted, the person elected will fill the position for the remaining part of the original term only.
  • Public Policy Forum Chairs must be members of LACNIC or endorsed by a member of LACNIC.
  • These positions will be held alternately for 2 years, with the possibility of unlimited reelection.

What are the responsibilities of LACNIC's Representative to the NRO Number Council/ ASO Address Council?

The responsibilities of LACNIC's Representative to the NRO Number Council/ASO Address Council are detailed in the ASO Memorandum of Understanding, which is available at http://www.nro.net/documents/icann-address-supporting-organization-aso-mou.

What is a Director's workload and how much time does it require?

LACNIC's Board of Directors holds periodic meetings (approximately 9 times a year) through telephone or web-based conferences. In addition, there are also two face-to-face meetings a year, one during a LACNIC event, the other at the end of the year in Montevideo (unless the Board of Directors decides to do it otherwise or in a different place / at a different time). LACNIC is responsible for all travel expenses.

Remote meetings are usually held between 1100 UTC and 1800 UTC and last approximately 2 hours.

How long do Directors serve on the Board?

Directors each serve a three-year term.

+info

Who are LACNIC's current Directors?

For more information on LACNIC's Board of Directors

Does being on LACNIC's Board of Directors require full-time dedication?

Being a member of LACNIC's Board of Directors does not require exclusivity.

 

Policy FAQ

How is a policy developed?

The Policy Development Process (PDP) is a bottom-up process, as proposals originate in the community. Any member of the community can present a policy proposal, which will be discussed on the Public Policy Mailing List and at the Public Policy Forum. If the proposal successfully completes the Policy Development Process, it will become a policy and it will be implemented by LACNIC.

More information on the Policy Development Process.

How I can propose a policy?

You must first subscribe to the Public Policy Mailing List

You must then complete and submit the following form

What is the Public Policy Mailing List?

The Public Policy Mailing List is a public email distribution list where issues related to LACNIC policies are discussed.

You can subscribe to the Public Policy Mailing List.

For more information on the Public Policy Mailing List.

What policy proposals are currently being discussed?

A list of the policy proposals currently under discussion is available.

What is the PDP?

PDP stands for Policy Development Process. It is a bottom-up, open and transparent process through which a proposal presented by a member of the community can become a policy and be applied by LACNIC as one of the rules under which LACNIC manages Internet resources.

More information on the PDP is available.

How are policies approved and who approves them?

Policy proposals go through two stages of discussion. The first stage is a discussion on the Public Policy Mailing List. Proposals that have been discussed for at least four weeks prior to the Public Policy Forum are then discussed in person during the Public Policy Forum and submitted to a call for consensus.

If the proposal reaches consensus at the Public Policy Forum, it enters a 45-day last call for comments period. In order for the proposal to become a policy and be implemented, it must then be ratified by the LACNIC Board of Directors

What is a Policy Forum Chair and what are their functions?

There are two Policy Forum Chairs. These chairs are members of the community who moderate the discussions related to policies, both on the Public Policy Mailing List as well as during the Public Policy Forum.

Chairs have the following functions:

  1. To lead and prepare Public Policy Forum discussions. Discussions shall be conducted by one of the two chairs, who may alternate in this function during the course of the event.
  2. To lead the Public Policy Mailing List and the Policy Development Process in general.
  3. To evaluate and suggest minor changes to the texts proposed during the Public Policy Forum before the corresponding call for consensus.
  4. To evaluate and suggest consensus in policy discussions.
  5. To suggest the finalization of the discussions on a specific issue on the Public Policy Mailing List.
  6. To decide to abandon a policy.
  7. To summon the creation of Working Groups on the Public Policy Mailing List.
  8. To receive comments from LACNIC's Staff in relation to different aspects of a policy proposal. These comments may include, among others, comments on the wording, cost of implementing a proposal, legal aspects, and the location of a proposal within LACNIC's policy document.

How can I subscribe to the Public Policy Mailing List?

You can subscribe to the Public Policy Mailing List.

How can I run for Policy Forum Chair?

Calls for nominations for Policy Forum Chair are made on the Public Policy Mailing List, so it is advisable to subscribe to this list. These calls are made ​​approximately two months before the Public Policy Forum during which the term of one of the chairs is to expire.

Candidates must be members of LACNIC or be nominated by a member of LACNIC. Nominations or self-nominations must follow the instructions specified in the call for candidates.

More information on the election of Public Policy Forum Chairs can be found in section 2.2.3 of the PDP.

How can I express my agreement or disagreement with a policy proposal?

There are various ways in which you can participate in the discussion of a policy proposal. In the proposal's first stage, you can participate in the discussion that occurs on the Public Policy Mailing List. To do so you must first subscribe to the list.

The next discussion stage takes place during the Public Policy Forum, where you can join the discussion in person or remotely via chat.

Finally, there is a last call for comments period during which final comments on the proposal are received. These comments are received through the Public Policy Mailing List.

 

Resource Administration System and Whois Service

How can I check my organization's OWNER-ID?

All Internet resources assigned by LACNIC are associated with an Entity that represents the organization receiving the resource. All entities registered in LACNIC's s­­ystem have a unique identifier –the OWNER-ID.

To find out the OWNER-ID associated with an organization all you must do is query one of the Internet resources assigned to that entity using WHOIS de LACNIC.service

The response to this query will include a field (ownerid) with the organization's OWNER-ID.

On Unix systems the following command can also be run: whois –h whois.lacnic.net OWNER-ID

How can I check all the resources assigned to my organization?

You can perform a query on WHOIS de LACNICservice using the organization's OWNER-ID. The lower part of the query results shows the list of resources assigned to the organization under the following labels:

On Unix systems the following commands can also be run:

  • aut-num: autonomous system numbers (ASN).
  • inetnum: IPv4 and IPv6 address blocks.
  • whois –h whois.lacnic.net IPv4
  • whois –h whois.lacnic.net IPv6
  • whois –h whois.lacnic.net ASN

How can I change the language of the LACNIC's web system's interface?

LACNIC's resource management system can be used in English, Spanish and Portuguese.

The interface uses the language selected by the user when registering.

Existing users can modify this information by logging into the system, clicking on "ID update" and selecting the desired language. As with any other change, the new language option will only be used after the user has confirmed the change by following the instructions received via email.

Why does my computer say that the IP addresses assigned to my company have a postal address in Uruguay?

Some traceroute or IP query tools are still configured to query the WHOIS database of the three RIRs that existed before LACNIC's creation (APNIC, ARIN and RIPE NCC).

Before 29 July 2002, IP addresses in the 200.0.0.0/8 block were administrated by ARIN. Since then, these blocks have become LACNIC's responsibility.

ARIN's Whois server now only reports that these blocks have been transferred to LACNIC, whose administrative headquarters are located in Uruguay. It also suggests performing an additional query on WHOIS de LACNICserver.

This is why certain tools that query ARIN's but not LACNIC's WHOIS server report the postal address of all 200.0.0.0/8 block addresses as being in Uruguay.

LACNIC has reached out to some of these tools' developers to facilitate any necessary updates to their products.

How can I update the information of an IP address block or ASN that was not assigned by LACNIC?

Before updating your resource's information, it is first necessary to update the information that LACNIC received from ARIN.

To do so, you must first request an "update password" from LACNIC's Hostmaster (one-time password). Your email to the Hostmaster must include the organization's OWNER-ID as well as the point of contact's USER-ID. You will then be emailed a password that can be used to update the Entity's information.


Simply log into LACNIC's resource administration system with your USER-ID and personal password and then click on the "Legacy Resources" button.

[ FIG 26 - Entity Update]

Enter the organization's OWNER-ID and the password that was emailed to you on this screen.

[ FIG 27 - Actualizar Entidad ]

At the end of this process, the resources assigned to this entity will be visible on the system's home page and the authenticated user, i.e. the USER ID that will be the contact for these resources, will be able to manage them.

How I can manage the resources assigned to my organization?

IP address blocks and ASNs must be managed by their technical contact. For this, you must log into LACNIC's system at http://lacnic.net/login/SP with your userID and personal password.

The resources for which you are the technical contact will be shown on the system's home page. To manage your resources you must click on an IP address block or ASN.

In the case of IP address blocks, you will the option to sub-assign addresses to third parties, delegate reverse DNS resolution, verify the utilization of the blocks that have already been assigned, and register the ASN through which the block is announced.

I can log into LACNIC's system with my userID and password, but I can't see any IP address blocks or ASNs assigned to my organization. What should I do?

Check if the userID used to access the system is the technical contact for any IP address blocks or ASNs.

To do so, query the IP address block or ASN in LACNIC's WHOIS server and look for the "tech-c" field in the response. It will show the userID of the queried IP address block or ASN's technical contact. This is the userID that must be used to manage the resource.

How I can change the points of contact for an IP address block, an ASN, or the organization itself?

Only the administrative contact of the entity to which a block was assigned can change a its technical contact. The entity's administrative contact must log into LACNIC's system at http://lacnic.net/login/SP with his/her userID and personal password.

The user will see the name of the entity for which he/she is the administrative contact. He/she must click on the name of the entity and then, on the following screen, click on the resource for which the technical contact will be changed, and then replace the IP address block or ASN's current userID with the new contact's userID.

Each organization has three points of contact: an administrative contact, a billing contact and a membership contact. To change these points of contact you must log into LACNIC's system at http://lacnic.net/login/SP using you userID and personal password. Once logged in, go to Entities and click on the name of your organization. You can change your organization's three points of contact on the following screen.

DNS

Why do I need to register DNS servers for the blocks assigned to my organization?

DNS delegation for IP address blocks allows reverse resolution, i.e. finding out the name associated with an IP address that is being used by a computer.

How can I enter or change the DNS servers for an IP address block's reverse resolution?

The only person authorized to do this is the block's administrative contact. To do so, the administrative contact must log into LACNIC's system at http://lacnic.net/login/SP, click on the IP address block and then click on "Deleg" or "AltDel". The fields on the following screen must be completed with the names of the primary and alternate DNS servers.

For the delegation to become effective, these DNS servers must already be configured for the block's reverse resolution; otherwise, the system will display an error message.

What do the "Lame Delegation" messages I receive mean?

A "Lame Delegation" means that a DNS delegation has problems. This happens when the information on the IP address block in the DNS server registered in the database is not accurate, or when the DNS server can't be accessed by LACNIC's monitoring system and, therefore, causes reverse resolution errors. You should check your DNS server configuration.

How can I check the status of the DNS servers responsible for reverse resolution?

LACNIC's WHOIS server reports the status of the IP address blocks' DNS delegation and which servers are configured to respond to that assignment.

This information is available in the "nserver", "nsstat" and "nslastaa" fields of the responses provided by the WHOIS server when querying by IP address block.

The "nserver" field specifies which DNS server must respond to the delegation, the "nsstat" field specifies the delegation's status, and the "nslastaa" field specifies the date on which a correct configuration was observed on this server. To verify that your server is responding with the right information you can perform a test using the "dig" application. You should receive a "NOERROR" response. "NXDOMAIN" or "SERVFAIL" responses mean that there is a configuration error in your DNS server.

dig soa @nserver delegacion.in-addr.arpa

dig soa @NS.LACNIC.NET 80.7.200.in-addr.arpa

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Why do I get a system error when trying to register my DNS servers?

This can occur when the DNS servers specified in the system are not yet properly configured for the reverse resolution of an IP address block.

The DNS server must have information on every network that makes up the IP address block. For example, in the case of a /20, the server must have information on the 16 /24 networks it comprises. To check your DNS, follow the recommendations specified in the previous question.

Security

Why is LACNIC trying to hack into my computer?

This information is incorrect. Some computer security programs (firewalls) can be configured to search for IP address information in other registries' databases, and these may not have the most accurate information.

Many of these programs are configured to search for information in the databases maintained by ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers), which is the organization responsible for registering and assigning IP addresses in the North American region.

LACNIC is the organization responsible for registering and assigning IP addresses to organizations in Latin America and Caribbean.

There are five regional Internet registries worldwide:

APNIC the regional Internet registry for the Asia Pacific region;
ARIN the regional Internet registry for North America;
LACNIC   the regional Internet registry for Latin America and the Caribbean;
RIPE NCC the regional Internet registry for Europe;
AFRINIC the regional Internet registry for Africa.

Therefore, if your firewall searches other databases instead of LACNIC's, you will only obtain generic information that simply states that a particular IP address is under LACNIC's responsibility.

Note that the information provided by our database is authoritative and should be used as an accurate source of information. To search our database you can use the whois service.

So, how can I obtain the most accurate information available regarding the person responsible for the IP address that is trying to hack into my computer?

Any information regarding the IP addresses assigned by LACNIC can be obtained using the WHOIS tool in two different ways:

What kind of information does the Whois tool provide?

The Whois tool provides, among other information, the name of organization to which the IP address or ASN was assigned as well as its postal address, technical and administrative contacts, DNS servers, and registration date.

In this case the most important information is the organization to which an address was assigned and its points of contact (technical and administrative).

The Whois tool identifies this information as follows:

The owner-c and tech-c fields will only show the codes assigned by LACNIC's system. The contacts' complete information can be found in the response provided by the Whois tool itself, including the contacts' name, email address, postal address and telephone number.

  • owner: Name of the organization to which the IP address was assigned
  • owner-c: The organization's administrative contact
  • tech-c: Technical contact for the IP address

What should I do if the information provided by the Whois tool is incorrect?

Organizations receiving IP addresses from LACNIC are required to update their information.

If you notice any incorrect information, please notify LACNIC at hostmaster@lacnic.net specifying the IP address that contains invalid information.

What should I do in case of an attack?

You should contact the organization responsible for the IP address that originated the attack, emailing the organization's point of contact (see question 15) to politely request that they identify who is using this IP address and take the necessary measures according to acceptable use policies.

The message should include the IP address that originated the attack and the time that it occurred. This information should be available on your firewall's logs.

Can't LACNIC go after the user of this IP address?

LACNIC does not have the legal means to take action against attackers; neither does LACNIC have the necessary technical means to do so, as this is an ISP's user, not LACNIC's.

LACNIC is simply the entity responsible for registering and assigning the resources (IPv4, IPv6 and ASN), and it is only responsible for providing information about the organization to which a certain resource has been assigned.

I've received a lot of unsolicited emails (spam), and certain security software has identified LACNIC as the sender. Why is that?

Some security programs are configured to query ARIN's database to determine who is responsible for an IP address. That database contains only generic information that states that a particular IP address is under LACNIC's responsibility, but this does not mean that LACNIC is sending the unsolicited emails.

In this case you should contact the organization responsible for the IP address that originated the spam.

Can't LACNIC simply remove my email address from these spam distribution lists?

LACNIC does not send unsolicited emails (spam), nor does it maintain any email distribution lists.

How can I protect myself against unsolicited email?

Some recommendations on how to protect yourself against spam or minimize the problem:

More useful tips can be found at:
"Fight Spam on the Internet!"
"Documentos Produzidos pelo NBSO"

  • Never reply to spam messages, as this will only confirm that your email address is valid.
  • Notify those responsible for the IP address where the spam is originating; often they don't know that their computer is being used for this purpose.
  • Don't publish your email address on websites you don't trust. If an online shopping site requires an email address, you can use a free address that can later discarded.

What are legacy resources?

Legacy resources are those that were assigned before the creation of Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). All Internet resources (IP address blocks or ASNs) assigned prior to December 28, 1997 are regarded as legacy resources.

Are there any differences between legacy and non-legacy resources?

No. Both are valid Internet resources and can be used normally by the organization to which they ere allocated/assigned. This differentiation is important because non-legacy resources have been assigned by RIRs according to policies proposed and approved by each region's community. Organizations with legacy resources are generally not members of LACNIC, unless they have also been assigned IPv6 addresses.

More information.

Can an organization with a legacy IP address block request additional blocks?

Any organization that has custody of a legacy block can request additional blocks. To request an additional block you must complete the form available at IPv4 blocks to providers (ISP) o IPv4 blocks for End Users and include it in the body of an email to hostmaster@lacnic.net.

To justify the assignment of an additional block, the organization will have to provide data showing efficient utilization of the previous block.

After the additional block is approved, the previous block will no longer be considered legacy and the organization will become a member of LACNIC. LACNIC member organizations will be assigned a category based on the size of the previous and the additional blocks.

More information on membership categories and fees.

Can legacy resources be managed with LACNIC's resource management system?

All resources under LACNIC's responsibility can be managed through LACNIC's web-based system.

Some resources were transferred from ARIN to LACNIC, and these need to be updated before they can be managed with the web-based system.

How can I update the information on legacy resources?

The aim of updating the resources transferred to LACNIC is to associate the resource with a technical contact and with the administrative contact of the responsible organization.

To perform this update you must follow the procedure described in
http://lacnic.net/sp/update.html

Sometimes it is also necessary to correct or modify the name of the organization. In this case you should request that the resource be transferred.

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What type of Internet resources does LACNIC assign?

Any organization in the cobertura de LACNIC,an request the following Internet resources:

  • IPv4 address block
  • IPv6 address blocks
  • Autonomous System Numbers

How can I request an IP address block or ASN from LACNIC?

When requesting IP addresses from LACNIC there are two options: if the IP addresses will be used in your own infrastructure and will not be sub-assigned to your clients, you can request resources as an End User; if you provide Internet services and plan to sub-assign IP addresses to your customers, you can request resources as an ISP. Applicable policies and membership fees vary in both cases.

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To begin the application process you must complete the corresponding form and include it in the body of an email to hostmaster@lacnic.net. The policies and corresponding application form to apply as an END-USER, the policies and application form to apply as an ISP.

To apply for an autonomous system number (ASN) you must complete the corresponding form and include it in the body of an email to hostmaster@lacnic.net. The applicable policies and corresponding form is available at Services ASN

What are the requirements for receiving an IP address block from LACNIC?

The requirements for receiving IP address blocks from LACNIC if your organization is an ISP or if your organization is an End User.

I requested an ASN for my organization. The request was approved and the ASN was assigned; however, I have not received the IP address block. What should I do?

ASN requests do not include an IP address block. These are two distinct requests that have to be submitted separately using the proper templates.

If your organization needs an ASN and an IP address block, you should submit two separate requests: one for the ASN, the other for the IP address block (see question 29).

My organization is starting its operations as a provider and does not yet have any IP addresses. Can we request some from LACNIC?

LACNIC has an immediate assignment policy, the aim of which is to serve those organizations that have made significant investments to start their operations as service or connectivity providers but don't yet have the necessary IP addresses.

For further details on the applicable policy, see "2.3.3.3. Direct Allocations to Internet Service Providers"

My IP address block application has been approved, we have signed the Registration Services Agreement and sent it to LACNIC, but we have not received our IP address block yet. What else do we have to do?

After an application is approved, the organization must sign the Registration Services Agreement and pay the registration fee according to the organization's category. So, in addition to the agreement, you should check if this fee was paid. For further information regarding payments, you can contact facturacion@lacnic.net

My IP address block application has been approved, we have signed the Registration Services Agreement and sent it to LACNIC, but we have not received our IP address block yet. What else do we have to do?

After an application is approved, the organization must sign the Registration Services Agreement and pay the registration fee according to the organization's category. You should check if two copies of this agreement were signed and sent to LACNIC.